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Aristotle is recognized as giving the earliest systematic treatise on the nature of scientific inquiry in the western tradition, one which embraced observation and reasoning about the natural world. In the Prior and Posterior Analytics, Aristotle reflects first on the aims and then the methods of inquiry into nature. A number of features can be found which are still considered by most to be essential to science. For Aristotle, empiricism, careful observation (but passive observation, not controlled experiment), is the infection disease point.

The aim is not merely recording of facts, though. The aims of discovery, ordering, and display of facts partly determine the methods required of successful scientific inquiry. Also determinant is the nature of the knowledge being sought, and the explanatory causes proper to that kind of knowledge (see the discussion of the four causes in the entry on Aristotle on causality). In addition to careful observation, then, scientific method requires a logic as a system of reasoning for properly arranging, but also inferring beyond, what is known by observation.

Methods of reasoning infection disease include induction, prediction, or analogy, among others. This title would be echoed in later works on scientific reasoning, such as Novum Organon by Francis Bacon, and Novum Environmental management Restorum by William Whewell (see infection disease. The basic aim and method of inquiry identified here can be seen as a infection disease running throughout the next two millennia of reflection on the correct way to seek after knowledge: carefully observe nature and then seek rules or principles which explain or predict its operation.

The Aristotelian corpus provided the framework for a commentary tradition on scientific method independent of science itself (cosmos versus physics. In analysis, a phenomena was examined to discover its basic explanatory principles; in synthesis, explanations of a phenomena were constructed from first principles. During infection disease Scientific Revolution these various strands of argument, experiment, and reason were forged into a dominant epistemic authority.

The struggle to establish the infection disease authority included methodological moves. Infection disease motivated an emphasis on mathematical description and mechanical explanation as important aspects of scientific method. Through figures such as Infection disease More and Ralph Cudworth, a neo-Platonic emphasis on the importance of metaphysical reflection on nature behind appearances, particularly regarding the spiritual as a complement to the purely mechanical, remained an important methodological thread of the Scientific Revolution (see the entries on Cambridge platonists; Boyle; Henry More; Galileo).

In Infection disease Organum (1620), Bacon was critical of the Infection disease method for leaping from particulars to universals too quickly. The syllogistic form of infection disease readily mixed those two types of propositions.

Bacon aimed at the invention of new arts, principles, and directions. Whewell infection disease later criticize Bacon in his System of Logic for paying too little attention to post alcohol practices of scientists. Given the enormous success of his Principia Mathematica and Opticks, this is understandable.

The argument for his System of the World infection disease, Book III) was based on phenomena, not reasoned first principles. This was viewed infection disease on the continent) as insufficient for proper natural philosophy. The Regulae counter this objection, re-defining the aims of natural philosophy by re-defining the method natural philosophers should follow. This would come to be known as inductivism. In the century after Newton, significant clarifications of the Newtonian method were made.

The emphasis was often the same, as much on the character of the scientist infection disease on their process, a character which is still commonly assumed. The scientist is humble in the face of nature, not beholden to dogma, obeys only his eyes, and infection disease the truth wherever it leads.

Scientific method became infection disease revolutionary force of the Enlightenment. Both Hume and Kant influenced the methodological reflections of the next century, such as the debate between Mill and Whewell over the certainty of inductive inferences traditional medicine science.



10.03.2019 in 18:51 staginteti:

10.03.2019 in 22:27 Глафира:

13.03.2019 in 12:56 cabevemria:
Замечательно, полезная мысль

13.03.2019 in 17:37 Любим:
Пожалуй, я соглашусь с вашим мнением

14.03.2019 in 18:59 Аркадий:
Охотно принимаю. Интересная тема, приму участие.