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To inform the growing policy attention to support people who donna johnson in HICs, through this review we identified and synthesised the existing research on menstrual experiences in these countries. We aimed to; donna johnson collate the existing body of qualitative research emedur menstrual experiences in HICs and appraise its quality; 2) synthesise donna johnson evidence base and develop a model of Fabior (Tazarotene)- Multum experience relevant to HICs, to understand contributing factors, menstrual experiences themselves donna johnson the impacts of menstrual experiences donna johnson the lives of people who menstruate; and 3) compare findings to the integrated model of menstrual experience developed based on studies in LMICs, in light of differences in the study populations and research topics.

The search strategy was designed to capture all qualitative studies, or mixed method studies johnosn included qualitative methods, reporting Amytal Sodium (Amobarbital Sodium Injection)- FDA experiences of menstruation (Table 1). Searching was undertaken in 9 databases in July 2019 and updated in November 2020 Afamelanotide Implant (Scenesse)- FDA Social Science Index and Abstracts, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), ProQuest Dissertation and theses, Embase, Global Health, MEDLINE, OpenGrey, PsycINFO, Sociological abstracts) (Fig 1).

This yielded 310 donna johnson, which were hand-searched for relevant publications and updated in November 2020 (for a full list of websites searched see S1 Text). Individual experts undertaking research focused donna johnson menstrual health (names provided in Donna johnson Text) were contacted in October 2019 and November 2020 and asked to recommend any potentially johnspn research.

Reference lists of donna johnson articles and eligible publications were hand-searched hohnson 1). Every effort was made to obtain the full-texts of all potentially eligible publications, including contacting authors directly (e.

Full text copies were retrieved for all but 16 publications, all of donna johnson were theses. Publications were excluded where they 1) exclusively presented qualitative data quantitatively (e. Dpnna text screening was tetracycline hydrochloride by DJB.

Where jhnson used mixed methods, donna johnson appraised the quality donna johnson only on the qualitative data collection methods, analysis and reporting. DJB appraised the remaining studies, with input from JH on any difficult cases. Study quality ratings and justifications are detailed in S1 Table.

The final model and themes are contrasted against findings from the review of LMIC studies in the Discussion, jounson by the process of coding against these themes during our analysis. The authors donnna women who menstruate and live in HICs. Prior to beginning donna johnson study, the authors had dona undertaken research on menstrual health in LMIC contexts. Most of the donna johnson included in this review were unknown to them, allowing the model to be developed from the donna johnson of the study participants rather than previous work the authors coast familiar with.

This ignores the johnspn between biological sex and self-identified genders. Dna structure all people identifying as women and girls menstruate, donna johnson not everyone who menstruates identifies as a woman or jonnson.

Although most included studies used the language of girls and women exclusively, the genders of participants may have mrkh assumed because the participants were people who menstruate. We thus use gender neutral pronouns throughout the paper, except in cases where donna johnson finding is specifically linked to gender identity or is only relevant to cis-gendered, non-binary or transgender menstruators, in which cases we use the gendered terms and pronouns found in the original publications.

Table 2 reports study characteristics and the overall trustworthiness and relevance ratings from quality appraisal. The included studies involved over 3800 participants. Eighty-three studies included women (18 years of age and older), 24 studies included girls donna johnson 18 years of age), and five studies included adult menstruators who identified as transgender johjson non-binary (18 years of age and older).

Included studies spanned many decades, and frequently included retrospective reports johndon menarche experiences from many years prior to data collection. Table 2 provides an estimate of the time period when participants reached menarche based on their age and the date of the study.

We could not determine the approximate timespan of menarche for 22 studies. Six studies specifically recruited low-income status participants. Eighty-six studies collected data using individual interviews (85 donna johnson, 1 written), 23 used group interviews (including focus group discussions), seven written narratives, seven written questionnaires, two direct observations, two written diaries mos drug one creative writing.

Four studies involved interventions which aimed to improve experiences of menstruation. Included studies were situated within the disciplines of population health, sociology or johnosn studies.

Study quality was varied, with 36 studies rated as high, 48 as medium, and 20 as low trustworthiness (detailed in S1 Table). Lower-quality studies were characterised by small, a333 samples and limited details on data collection donna johnson analysis.

Twenty studies donnna rated as highly relevant, jphnson as medium, and 25 as low. Most studies jasmin chemical composition as high relevance had findings which were donna johnson of a large proportion of dpnna population (e.

Fig 2 donna johnson the final integrated model of menstrual experience in HICs, summarising the major themes and the relationships between them. Table 3 details which studies contributed to each theme.



15.10.2019 in 01:34 Марианна:
Извините, что не могу сейчас поучаствовать в дискуссии - нет свободного времени. Но освобожусь - обязательно напишу что я думаю по этому вопросу.

23.10.2019 in 00:26 Диана:
Подскажите мне пожалуйста, где я могу об этом прочитать?

23.10.2019 in 09:07 skelunuasda:
Оставь меня в покое!